ISSN: 1814-9669

Volume 12, Issue 45

Volume 12, Issue 45, Winter 2018, Page 1-169

The impact of tourism investment in the diversification of income sources in Iraq for the years (2000-2015)

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 45, Pages 1-21

Iraq has unique diverse tourist wealth .It is the cradle of civilization that left its traces on the human heritage, as it is characterized by the rich geography and diverse bio climate, which is an attraction for entertainment tourism in addition to the presence of so many holy shrines which attracts religious tourism factor, but because the Iraq conditions of wars and exposure to international terrorism the extent of the government's orientation to this sector is limited relied solely on oil revenues. Despite everything, religious tourism has remained popular during the period of study and accredit has relied on the existence of a positive impact of tourism revenues and non-oil GDP using koyck model .The study concluded that there a direct correlation between tourism revenue and GDP therefore this requires giving a prominent role and great importance to tourism to generate income through the visa facilities and involving the private sector where, as well as linking Iraq to neighboring countries with modern quick transport, railways, marine and road in addition to development infrastructure in Iraq.
Key words: tourism investment, tourism revenue, gross domestic product without oil ,koyck model

clean production standards management and its impact In reducing the risks of ( Economical , environmental and healthiness ), according to the philosophy of (Jidoka) Japanese . Search reconnaissance of the views of a sample of technicians Basra Gas Company

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 45, Pages 22-64

The current research aims to define a vision approach to the management of clean manufacturing standards of the local organization's strategy, according to the philosophy of (Jidoka) as one of the most important philosophies that have defined cleaner production system and ways to improve the work and raise the level of manufacturing culture of life environment as far as can be and then extended this shift to some developed countries Commonly concept wider towards the prevention of emissions and risks of contaminants and reduce the depletion of natural resources and prevent the use of toxic substances in the industrial and service production to reduce the risk of misuse of consumption and production and diagnosis of ways to prevent the economic, environmental and health damage Another objective is to identify the concept and standards for clean manufacturing and determine the relevant founded administrative procedures, to build a test and measure the application in accordance with the methodology of cleaner production program and to identify the most important criteria specified by the board of environmental protection in the United Nations.
The problem research had identified a group of some as follows:-
1. what cognitive readiness level to the relevant human resources clean production technologists?
2. What are the steps to applying cleaner production system? And what should change behaviors in our challenging manufacturing economic, environmental and health risks?
3. What is the clean manufacturing standards? How can management in local institutions?
4. what qualification requirements for cleaner production and jidoka philosophy to Iraq?
Applied research on a sample of Basra gas company technicians Iraqis and foreigners as the company has a cadre of the( Dutch Shell company) and( Japanese mitsubshi ).
The most important variables are discussed and submitted her test and analysis researcher divisions discussed are (cleaner production, jidoka, economic, environmental and health risks) and represent the research community in all technical personnel working in the Basra gas company gas production was selected (24) one of them to answer scale passages were chosen at random.
It was using the (Mean and standard deviation and coefficient of correlation and interpretation of regression in addition to t-test statistic )as tools for analysis and testing.
The research found a collection of the most important conclusions (there are shortcomings in the company's possession of clean manufacturing structure discussed such as laboratories for the analysis and screening of toxic substances and what is currently available Owned by
(Dutch Shell company)returns to Japanese mitsubshi by researcher's interview with the Director of the Basra gas company gas attached to search (Appendix 2) which raises the chances of contamination in the country which is the real impediment cannot nullify).
And (there is a great lack of cadres and the difference with expertise on clean production in the company, it was found that hiring experts to fill that shortfall, which cost the company money to cover housing costs and protection, transportation and the presence of experts from outside the company temporary status is useless).
The main recommendations were (useful for all company professionals discussed abide the idea of clean manufacturing ethic and not to resist change towards standards and preventive awareness (jidoka).
Key words (Jidoka, cleaner production, pollution, emissions, toxic substances, preventive measures, clean manufacturing standards, the International Foundation for the Environment)

The Sustainable Human Development in Iraq: Its Signification and Principles of Goals Implementation

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 45, Pages 65-92

The human development concept implies a various number of quantitative and qualitative indicators that relate to human resources’ life, where the economic development became a compound term. It includes indices linked with the standard of living, education and health situation for human being as a major instrument for development and targeted goal by decision makers. However, the sustainable human development is a broader concept that includes the contemporary indicators of the development. Thus, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) –in its annual reports- has focused on making clarity and measures the developmental implications.
Furthermore, the recent economic progress in the advanced countries has led to emerging environmental consequences represented by cases of depletion of the three elements of the environment; land, water and air. This environmental damage is a result of industrial waste and production activities. However, Iraq –as known- is a rich country in agricultural, mineral and human resources. Therefore, the policy makers in Iraq must take into consideration all these aspects. This could be through setting economic plans and programs to engage the available resources in order to achieve a balance between employing the economic resources and ensuring positive economic growth. Notably, over the previous years and right now, the Iraqi economy did not achieve a resource balance, which negatively led to backward the indicators of human development and developmental goals for the country as well.

Stag fation in Iraq analytical study of the period ( 1990 – 2003 )

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 45, Pages 93-122

The problem of stagflation on considers as one of the most important problems that faced advanced countries in seventies of the past century. Stagflation problem has been transferred to developing less country when they fulfilled economic programmers . Iraq economic was one of the well-defined example of the Stagflation problem developing less countries . structural disorganizations were the main reason in forming the problem . Therefore the structural disorganizations has been divided to three types , every one typing in a part in the second chapter . The first part is about imbalance of production structural .The second chapter is about imbalance of external commerce . The third chapter is about imbalance labor market . It was clear in the second chapter that some of the imbalance in the Iraq economy were the main reason of the inflation problem occurrence . while, the rest were the cause of unemployment occurrence

A comparison between the algorithms (EM) and (NR) to find a hybrid distribution Weibull Gamma using simulation

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 45, Pages 123-143

When using Maximum Likelihood Method for estimating the Mixture Distribution Parameters ,we get the equation of non-linear system This system is used to solve some numerical algorithms and the algorithms used are the expectation maximization algorithm (EM) where rewritten to instabilmente incomplete data and then where to find the conditional expectation. Among the other algorithm which used to find the estimation of Mixture Distribution Parameters is Newton Raphson , which is iterative methods depending on finding the solution of non-linear system of equation by using Taylor Series

Suggested methods for financing the infrastructure sectors in Iraq

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 45, Pages 144-169

The investment spending one of the important macroeconomic variables that lead to economic growth, which contributes significantly to capital accumulation, and by added to what already exists of buildings and capital equipment on the one hand, and make up for what has been lost from productive capacities by extinction on the other hand, Therefore, the investment of all kinds is one of the important sources of funding for projects, whether production or service, as well as the contribution of foreign direct investment in the transfer of machinery, equipment and expertise and develop the skills of workers, and then, Iraq needs to improve the investment climate in order to contribute to the promotion of local investors and attract foreign investors and therefore Iraq, the need to overcome the difficulties and risks that stand obstacle to investors, through the enactment of laws and legislation and the establishment of special courts trade issues, because foreign investment is available as an absolute, but there is intense competition for lured by most countries, whether developing or developed in General, and the neighboring countries, in particular, as the largest recipient of investments in the Gulf region, Saudi Arabia, although it was not exposed to crises such as those exposed to it Iraq, so Iraq has a lot of challenges that require study and research and treatment in order to reach positive results of concrete