ISSN: 1814-9669

Volume 11, Issue 41

Volume 11, Issue 41, Winter 2016, Page 1-261

The Effect of psychological capital in achieving organizational commitment Empirical Study in General company for the manufacture of fertilizers in Basrah

Assist .Prof.Dr. Rasha Mahdi Salih

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 41, Pages 1-34

The study aims to diagnose the nature of the correlation between psychological capital dimensions (hope, optimism, self-efficacy, flexibility), and organizational commitment dimensions (emotional commitment, normative commitment, continuous commitment), and analyze the impact psychological capital in achieving organizational commitment. Adopted the study approach descriptive and analytical, and used the questionnaire as an essential tool for data collection, study sample consisted of (100) employees at the General Company for the manufacture of fertilizers in Basrah, and use many tools statistics as Means, Standards deviation, Coefficient of Variation, Correlations, and multiple regression analysis , in assistance the ready Program (SPSS), the study find to being correlation and impact for Psychological capital in organizational commitment.

Economic Corruption in the Arab States for the Period (2004-2014) Causes, effects and treatments

Assist .Prof.Dr. Adnan Farhan Al jawareen

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 41, Pages 35-65

Corruption is one of the most important economic problems that concern to planners and policy makers in many countries , including Arab Countries, which all have corruption, but it differs in size and effects, as a result of different combination of political, economic, and social for each country. Indeed, in fact that corruption is not the result of this era, but is as old as humanity. However, it has expanded its scope in recent years, especially in the Arab Countries prompting many researchers to the difference of their curriculum to explore the causes and effects of corruption and methods of treatment.

The reality of tourism in Iraq

Assist .Prof.Dr. Nadwa Hilal Jawda

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 41, Pages 66-89

The Tourism sector has developed ,Where tourism is no longer the word belonging to individuals passengers in order to enjoy views around the word ,but exceeded to include the identification of word cultures and global integration as well as the establishment of trade between nations ,Iraq is one of the countries that have all the elements of tourism ,including religious ,archaeological and aesthetic where Iraq is the land of the holy sites ,especially in the provinces of( Najaf, Karbala ,Baghdad and Samarra ).The aesthetic features in Iraq is concentrated in northern Iraq (Erbil , Sulaimaniyah , Dohuk ).The archeological sites are in (Minewa ,Kirkuk , Diyala , Tikrit ,Babylon) and confirmed .And do not forget the south of Iraq ,especially the marshlands and the so-called Venice of the East. Unfortunately ,these depleted resources are not exploited for the development of this sector ,similar to What happens in most countries of the Word , Where this scoter has suffered from neglecting on the length of the previous decades

Measure and Evaluate the level of the Quality of Hotel Service A prospective study of the views of a sample of employees and customers in Minawi Pasha Hotel in Basrah

Lecturer . Dr. Laila Lafta Ali; Assist . Lec t. Leqaa Matar Aati

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 41, Pages 90-121

Services have become great importance at the present time due to changes in the business environment and the related change of the needs and desires of consumers and customers. So the current quest aims to identify the level of quality hotel services in one of the first-class hotels, research was conducted on the ground in Minawi Pasha Hotel in the province of Basra, and selected a sample of (80) Single with customers and employees in this hotel . application form questionnaire designed For this purpose included (20) question about the dimensions of quality of hotel services (reliability, tangibility, responsiveness, assurance, empathy). Also adopted Find the head of that hypothesis "is influenced by the level of quality hotel services provided to the beneficiary by the availability of dimensions (reliability, tangibility, responsiveness, assurance , empathy). The research found a number of conclusions, the most important of a relationship between the quality of provided hotel service level and the dimensions of quality of hotel service. developed a set of recommendations, most notably, the need for attention by the hotel management to customers in person according to their needs, and upgrading the quality of service within the dimensions President her.

Predict the number of Iraq's population models using Box - Jenkins through 2020

Assist .Prof. Dr.Fawzia Ghalib Omar

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 41, Pages 122-150

The prediction in the preparation of the general population, is preparing in the approximate amount of time later, it also gives recognition expected change in the preparation of the population in the future, on the basis of social, economic and geographic population evolution. The goal of most of the statistical population studies, predict the future is to provide an approximation of the population.
There is no doubt that the use of statistical and mathematical methods in the form of relations and models of digital measurements in population phenomenon fee, such as the use models "Box- Jenkins" and logistics to portray the main problem in changes in the size of the population, and the impact of these indicators on the economic and social development. Which showed an increase in population size and growth rates, which requires improved levels of income and expense of the population's needs for food, housing, and the need to provide those future population data with the increasing demand by policy-makers and plans for economic and social development.

Historical dimensions of cost accounting practices : origin and evolution steps

Assist .Prof. Dr.Hashim Ali Hashim

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 41, Pages 151-193

This study examined the evolution of cost accounting techniques in six countries, namely Italy, France, Spain, England, and America. We have found that the roots of the practice and application of cost accounting dating back to the beginning of the fourteenth century in the form of what was then called the Industrial Accounting and often was approved by industrial workshops, From the maintenance of industrial records, to open industrial accounts, and to compile the costs and determine the actual cost of the product and estimate raw materials costs. And was then used cost information for the pricing of products, and to evaluate the stock for the purpose of preparing the financial statements, and the successive stages of development over the centuries and especially the seventeenth and eighteenth sessions, and widened the scope of development during the nineteenth century, since the eighties years of last century to this day many advanced cost accounting techniques have emerged.

The start of the emergence of cost accounting applications in Italy, France and Spain before the Industrial Revolution, and then to England with the advent of the industrial revolution in America and then to the impact of the businessmen and the owners of the money go to America, where the company formation. These applications have changed after 1950 years and appeared significantly contribute to academics through the publication of new books which emphasized the administrative entrance to the cost accounting and the emergence of many advanced technologies years since the eighties of the last century.

Analysis of structural shocks of Aggregate Demand Models Using vector Autoregressive (SVAR)-Iraq as case study (1970-2010)

Assist .Prof.Dr.Zahra Hassan Abbass

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 41, Pages 194-232

This study sought to analyze the dynamic behavior of the non-oil GDP in Iraq for the period (1970-2010), through the components of the total demand for spending of government and private, consumption& investment and non-oil exports, (impulse response function) &(variance decompositions) reached that the important variables affecting the non-oil GDP is the variable itself and the government consumer spending, after estimating the structural vector autoregressive (SVAR), which was estimated based on the (VEC model), where the study concluded, that there is cointegration between the study variables. By using Johansen test , which has been applied after making sure that all the variables of the study integrated from first order I(1), depending on the Unit root tests (PP, ZA, ADF), Also reached the (LR test ) to, study data is free from the structural changes , hence been estimated model (VEC) without dummy variables that represent economic blockade and war.

Value chain as one of the tools of strategic Management costs in order to Decrease

Prof. Dr. Manal Jabbar Soroor Assist; Mohaned Hadi Salih; Assist.Lect

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 41, Pages 233-261

The world is witnessing significant and rapid changes in the business environment regarding the increasedcompetition, the rapid technological developments, the opening of markets, globalization, changing in production methods and the increased interest in the changing customer requirements. Thus, companies work hard to manage costs through the adoption of strategies enable them to survive and compete with a focus on achieving dimensions of quality, cost and customer satisfaction.Strategic value chain is regarded one of the most modern strategies in this area.Through this strategy,activities can be divided to the adding and non-value adding activities on the basis of which costs will be divided to the costs of adding value and non-value adding costs which in turn will be removed or improved if the activities are essential.