ISSN: 1814-9669

Volume 9, Issue 34

Volume 9, Issue 34, Spring 2014, Page 1-210


TRENDS IN EDCUCAION REFORM IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD (1969/1970-2010/2011)

Prof.Dr. Assad J. Kadhim

Economic Sciences, Volume 9, Issue 34, Pages 1-24

The seventies of the last century Represents " golden decade " of the national educational system , Iraq has been invoked on one of the best educational systems in the Middle East and North Africa ( MENA ) until the year 1991 .
The importance of the study stems from being dealing with the contribution of education in building national human capital because of its urgent role to play in reducing poverty and reduce social and spatial inequalities.
While the national database show lack of strong and significant link between education and human capital , research problem dealing with relevant aspects of the institutional and regulatory constraints faced by the educational system , as well as the lack of harmonization of educational outcomes to the needs of sustainable human development
The study aims to the need to achieve universal education for all quantitively and qualitatively .
While the hypothesis of the study is based on verification of the positive impact that leave education on human capital formation nationally,
This survey has addressed in order to make sure the hypothesis is correct or not , or need for the amendment , the changes in the national educational system for the period ( 1969/1970-2010/2011 ) in terms of quantity and quality, and the failures that were exposed , and reached many of the proposals.

Economic and Environmental Effects of Oil Refining and Industry Empirical Research at South Refineries Company (State Company)

Dr. Malek A. Ahmed

Economic Sciences, Volume 9, Issue 34, Pages 25-51

Iraq has a huge oil reserves ( installed and potential ) experts estimates it by (500) Billions / Barrel، Iraq economic depends heavily on oil revenues which considered the main source for financing the development of economic sectors ، but this oil production capacity is still disproportionate with huge reserves owned by Iraq، where the oil sector in Iraq faced a great damages because of the wars and economic sanctions which reduces production capacities and decline in the performance of the oil sector ، Iraq could not rise his productions even to the level of production pre – Iraq- Iran war ، which a is reflected on the amount of the exports and revenues، as well as the Iraqi refineries thought the limited of production but it didn't kept safe from damage which hit's its basic structure and stops a lot of production capacity and lose its ability to follow up the technical development and made its products were not corresponding to international specifications، and drifted away from environments terms to become a source of pollution. So، to develop the oil industry a package of investments that Iraq could not provide in short or middle time ، and in order to solve that there must be a local and foreign capitals to contribute in the development of oil production and achieve the economic efficiency in exploitation of oil wealth. But the efforts should not be for developing of production and exportation only، it should be on the variety of oil exportations that depends on the variety of oil productions ، to include these exports petroleum products instead of crude oil to maximize economic values of oil resources.

Leadership Styles and Their Effect on organizational Commitment Empowerment as Moderator Factor Exploratory study in the number of Business Organizations in Iraq

Prof.Dr. Abdul-Ridha F. Badrawi

Economic Sciences, Volume 9, Issue 34, Pages 52-102

The Study has been taken to consider the affect of the leadership styles on the organizational commitment through empowerment as an moderator variable. The study was applied at number of organizations in Iraqi environment such as the State Company of Fertilizers ، the State Company of Iraqi Ports، the State Company for Petrochemical Industries.
The questioners has been used for data collection and 223 questionnaires were distributed as a sample for this study. Also face to face interview was، used as a data collection method.
The study got to some conclusions such as ، there are differences in leadership styles among those organizations. In the State Company for Fertilizers applied the transformational styles، while the State Company of Iraqi ports and State company for Petrochemical Industries to follow the transactional leadership style Also it showed that the worker empowerment plays very active role in increasing the leadership styles which in turn has positive a effect on organizational commitment in these organizations.

Using smart card and predicted Markov chains to organize the numbers of pensions in Rasheed – Bank .

Prof.Dr. Dhawiya S. Hassan

Economic Sciences, Volume 9, Issue 34, Pages 103-133

This paper deals with using some methods of Stochastic Processes , through Markov chain , Markov matrix to calculate the average number of years for survival time to receive the pension retired , and this average number of years can be used also in the assessment and analysis of the number of retirees who raise their salaries on the smart card in the coming years .
The Markov chain contribute in predicting a future state , depending on a matrix of transition probabilities and precedent state . this work helps in locating states of transition system from one period to another , this helps in estimating the number of retirees have been issued card in order for them to receive their salaries . this leads to study and analysis of the correlation among retirees and institutions with which the pension have been received , (Namely , the national pension , the bank and the company Smart Card ) , to help in predicting numbers of retirees to the Rasheed Bank for the years (2013 - 2017).
It was noted that the theoretical basis for model Markov that applied in the analysis of this phenomenon in both determine the total number of pensioners who can receive their salaries on the card and who did not raise their salaries on the card, although it has been issued card to them , or in measuring the time required for the survival of a retired every two months to receive their dues and both the military and civilian sections , This is the indicator can take advantage of it by decision-makers when them doing the future development plans by the above institutions

Studying the oscillations of oil prices on the international level and Statistical Analysis for the Time series (2000-2009)

Assist. Prof.Dr. Fawziya G.Omar

Economic Sciences, Volume 9, Issue 34, Pages 134-173

Oil still plays the supported role in many countries in the world . Oil is the main source if foreign currencies.
" It is the most factor of investment and more flexible comparing with others of economy "
The most side of oscillation of prices is related to the demand and supply factors . besides the other and depression in the industrial countries . Also they are related to the decline of dollar value . That of course , lead to increase the oil prices that valued by dollar.
Therefore, by using the time series we found that there are oscillation in the oil prices , either in the seasonal changes and equation of the general direction or using the percentage of the moving means. Here we found a difficult to distinguish between the permanent change of prices or the temporarily oscillations.
Because the supply strongly reacts with the change if they are from the first kind comparing with the second kind.
Therefore, the production with low costs good factor to solve problem of economic resources prices, due of it effects on the oil revenues .

The long run equilibrium relationship analysis By Using Unit root tests and Autoregressive Distributed Lag Approach (ARDL)

Assist .Prof.Dr. Abdul-Lateef H. Showman

Economic Sciences, Volume 9, Issue 34, Pages 174-210

The objective of this study is to analyze the long run equilibrium relationship between the production of rice in Iraq and its cultivated area used and its purchasing price by Iraqi government over the period 1971-2010.
To reach this objective the following are applied:
1. Use the unit root test individually in order to specify the stationary and the order of integration to each time series individually.
2. Apply Cointegration test by using the Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to test the long run equilibrium between the variables .
And result of this study : Some of the variables are Stationary in level (integrated of order zero I(0)) and other variables are Stationary in first difference (integrated of order one I(1)).
2. Existence of a long run equilibrium relationship between variables, which means that the long- run coefficients are stationary irrespective of whether the underlying regressors are I(0) or I(1) .