ISSN: 1814-9669

Volume 8, Issue 32

Volume 8, Issue 32, Autumn 2013, Page 1-156

U.S. Public Debt Ceiling and international monetary system

P.Dr. Jaleel .S. Dhamad

Economic Sciences, Volume 8, Issue 32, Pages 1-22

The nature of political system in the United States , which based on military superiority, requisites huge military spending beyond its economic and financial capacity . In addition , the nature of the international monetary system based on its currency, the dollar , as the basis for reserves and for International Settlements, works for US advantage and consider one of the most important causes of its prosperity through the monetary expansion in terms of dollars .These two factors led to a severe double deficit, i.e. , deficit of public budget and balance of payments, which leads in turn to the huge public debt financed through the issuance of more dollars at the expense of the interests of other nations that seek to find a suitable alternative to the current international monetary system.

In this paper we will try to clarify some important points regarding some aspects of public debt and external debt, the root and the reasons of the problem of US public debt, the economic and financial implications of such debt at the level of the U.S. economy and at the level of the global economy, focusing on its effects on the international monetary system ,and finally we try to imagine the likely alternatives to current international monetary system which can serve balanced interests to all developed and developing countries

The Role of the Investment Climate in the Support and Promotion of the Competitiveness of the Algerian National Economy

Dr. Rihan Al-Shareaf

Economic Sciences, Volume 8, Issue 32, Pages 23-52

It has become a firm conviction that competitiveness is an essential means of expanding the capacity of developed and those developing economies to coexist in an international environment characterized by globalization. While competition describes the market structure, the behavior of individuals and business, competitiveness is interested in the evaluation of business performance or countries and compare them in the conditions of competition available in these markets. Regarding Algeria, it has taking on different degrees and gradually the market economy through policies of privatization, trade liberalization, stimulating direct investment and institutions rehabilitation to improve competitiveness.
We will try through this article to come within reach of the competitive position of the Algerian economy through competitiveness indicators, providing the most important features of investment climate in Algeria and trying to make proposals in order to improve the competitiveness of the national economy in order to ensure it in the level of international markets.

The Role of Scientific Competent in Pulling the Direct Foreign Investment Case Study Malaysia

Dr. Adnan F. Abdul-Hussain

Economic Sciences, Volume 8, Issue 32, Pages 53-80

The relationship between foreign direct investment and developing the scientific and human capabilities is a positive relationship. When there is a trainee human capital available in any country there would be arise in that country ability to attract foreign direct investment.
The success of Malaysia in developing its economy and rising its ability to attract FDI belongs to number of factors. The most important one of those is developing the human capital by rising the rate of spending on education and health sectors. And this led Malaysia to establish a developing educational system, which helped to attract foreign international companies, and led to made a structural transformation in Malaysian economy, and the Industrial sector became the leader sector of the economy instead of agricultural sector.

Environmental pollution ;Its economic impacts on the Agricultural Activity in Basrah governorate.

Lecturer. Hussain A.Ahmed

Economic Sciences, Volume 8, Issue 32, Pages 81-110

Pollution concept is always associated with environment concept, where it is not possible to talk about the pollution without mention the environment. Above all it is impossible to identity the environment without mentioning the pollution .pollution is resulted from confusion in environment or in one of its elements. Scientists say that the main reason of environmental Pollution is human ,where environment supplies him with food, palate , turnout , housing, but he leaves his litters on it . because of operations variety and consumption accumulation ,so pressures take place upon environment that resulted in confusion in its balance and this confusion is the reason of environmental Pollution.
It is possible to say that there isn’t any environment in the world free of Pollution . The problem of environmental Pollution is worsening as a result of the increase in economic and industrial activities . Accordingly it is impossible to over leap this problem but it is important to take suitable procedure to treat it and reduce its impacts .

Using the Financial Ratios in Determining the Effective on the Profitability of Commercial Banks

Dr. Imad A. Salman

Economic Sciences, Volume 8, Issue 32, Pages 111-134

Because of the importance role for the commercial banks in whole economics for any countries , and its direct effects in the investments environment, the investors trying to find more than way to analyzing the major factors which affect the achieving the banks goals. One of these keys factors is the profitability .Therefore , this study aims to determine the factors which affects on the profitability of these banks by using the financial ratios. The study found that there were some key factors affects on the profitability such as capital, assets and liabilities.

The Use of Benchmarking Technique in Evaluating The Performance of the Tourism Sector Application on a Sample of Hotels in Some Iraqi Provinces

Assist.P.D.Saleh E.Yoonis

Economic Sciences, Volume 8, Issue 32, Pages 135-156

In the context of interest in the development of the performance of the units of economic production and service, the benchmarking technique apparent , to measure and evaluate the performance of these units, and to identify shortcomings in by comparison to others and work to improve treatment, and achieve quality in providing products. This technique has deployed the application in the past years in many countries, such as Japan and the United States of America and Britain and acquire great success.
Through the research will discuss this technology and try to apply three samples of hotels in order to improve performance. The research has come to a group of conclusion, the most important is benchmarking technology help economic units to evaluate their performance better than the classic methods of evaluation, as well as assist to offer improvements to enhance usability and performance of the unit cumulative economic and ultimately .Finally the research recommended to use modern techniques to evaluate the performance of service units, including to use of benchmarking technique.