Volume 8, Issue 31, Summer 2013, Page 1-230
The Relationship between the Oil revenues and Governmental expenditure in CCG for the Period 2000-2008
Volume 8, Issue 31, Pages 1-19
The flow of oil in Gcc countries has been accompanied , the national income dependence on oil production , the orprall revenues depended on oil revenues . Gulf economy depended on the public Spending , So Oil revenues exerted clear influence in determining the level of the income size and spending in these countries , therefore the research objective is studding the relationship between oil revenues and government spending in Gcc countries 2000-2008 .
Volume 8, Issue 31, Pages 20-45
It seems that the mutual influence between the intellectual economical contributions and the ideological factors is clear. Where we find the philosophical - ideological reflection in the world economic thought run its course over time . In addition ,there is another dimension which has a great effect on the economic thought , that is the current political system or the ruling class which is defending its economic interests.
The neo-liberals set out from the key principles confirmed by the predecessors, in particular the classical ideas, which came in the forefront of the ideas of Adam Smith , the leader of classical capitalism theory , who spoke about the economic freedom and the achievement of equilibrium through market mechanism .This theory was a reflection of the social content, which then make it more closer to reality.
But the neo-liberals have employed what Smith emphasized through the confirming of market efficiency and the rejection of any interventions in the financial policies .This led to an increase in the fiscal deficit, and strict adherence to a fixed rate of monetary expansion , where these policies return to the liberalization of markets to exercise its self-corrective tendency in the face of various economic trends.
Capitalist economy has been in a chronic recession over two successive decades in the past century after the collapse of the international monetary system, " Bretton Woods system ". So that the inflation and unemployment rates have increased , the growth rates have slowed and the crises rolled in , as crises of (1974-1975) and 1982 and 1987. That's why we can ask the following question:
"How can we overcome all these accumulations - the economic crisis- by which global economy has suffered ?"
So the neo-liberal thought emphasizes the globalization of the world economy through increased trade ,the rapid movement of capital ,the exchange of information and ideas . the growing movement of labor , the proliferation and expansion of multinational corporations work and reducing the economic role of the State as well as the passing of geographical boundaries and developing international institutions work.
The neo-liberal thought based on a document issued in Washington in 1989 and became known under the name of the "Washington consensus" , which includes ten commandments, including:
o Global trade liberalization
o Movement of capital
o Reduce the procedures and restrictions imposed on markets work
o Fiscal discipline, especially reducing budget deficits Some economists have shortened these commandments by the triad :
"prove - decide- privatize"
The collapse of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the one-polar in the world system as well as the leadership of the global economic system by United States have represented the incentive for liberal thought spread . in addition , this resulted in the globalization of the world economy where large companies do not know states or nationality or borders, particularly western companies, which has spread in most parts of the world especially in China and India ,as well as the spread of investments of some countries with distinct economic force in most parts of the world and the financial interdependency between financial institutions and banks in terms of loans or debt … etc . The monetary policy is not subject to the local monetary authorities which have not been able to defend exchange rates ,interest rates and stock prices in stock markets . So that , the world's economies become a mere decisions at the hand of speculators who trade in currencies and securities without the intervention of a foreign or a local authorities
In the view of some economists , the current financial crisis is attributed to the nature of the capitalist system which is based on open space for the current capitalism that constitutes an important milestone in the market economy, which is the mainstay of globalization. The globalization of the capital market led to a boom in the real estate mortgage market globally. Without the open market and financial speculation by the globalization policies , the problem hasn’t developed to the global crisis spread horizontally and in amazing speed in all States. The worst result from this spread due to globalization is the vulnerability of originally integrated marginal economies to the crisis . It could be a substitute vessel for any disruption appears in the reality of market laws and relations in the capitalist centers .
Volume 8, Issue 31, Pages 46-62
Since 2005, the Iraqi central bank tries to follow a strict monetary policy, in order to reduce a high level of inflation. This policy is used a balance tools to sell the American dollar in to face the high inflation level of Iraqi economy.
However, it has led to improve the exchange rate of Iraqi currency from 1500 Dinar for each Iraqi Dinar in 2005 to 1170 on 2010.
In addition, the another interfering policy represented by affecting the interest rate as a strict policy which lead to reduce the inflation level from 65% in 2005 to 35% in 2008, and then to 15% in 2010. Furthermore, the central bank has raised the interest rate to 16% in an attempt to attract a high quantity of Iraqi currency, as well as, re assessment the interest rate subsequently. This paper tackles the following points:
1. A theoretical framework.
2. Features of Iraqi economy.
3. The monetary policy of Iraqi economy.
4. Conclusions and recommendations
Volume 8, Issue 31, Pages 63-125
Water and soil salinity causes serious human problems. It hinders economic development in many countries.And becomes an international phenomenon that has negative impacts not confined on one limited area. That is why it concerns many researchers recently
Salinity is one of the challenges which faling Basrah today ,particularly in Fao where the problem becomes very effective. It causes reduction of the cultivated lands ,low production and displacement of thousands of people from the town. a result of the high salty tide and death of many animals because of shortage of natural plants in addition to many other problems. This research studies the definition ,history and causes of this phenomenon in Basrah and shows its impact on the factors of economy and economic security in this city
Finally there are some conclusion and suggestions.
Innovational Intellectual of the Management and it's relationship in solving the managerial problem; Applied study in many governmental organization
Volume 8, Issue 31, Pages 126-170
Innovation is one of the important features of organizations today in light of the rapid developments in knowledge and intellectual capital . the collateral of major developments in technology and the information revolution, globalization and intense competition between organizations, therefore, highlights the need for organizations to change to keep pace with these changes and developments to achieve the highest degree of efficiency and effectiveness. so you can to survive and survive and adapt to the surrounding variables. The essence of creativity in change, and change Hieahioa organizations at this time in an environment of rapid change, many events, so there is a need to the skills of creative thinking among managers to deal with changes and new circumstances and to stay away from the traditional classical style of thinking,
This study aimed to identify the level of creative thinking skills among managers and identify the relationship between the creative thinking of the Director of Iraq and the solution creative problem management, the research was based on the hypothesis of major stated (no relation Tathermanueh of Creative Thinking in the solution creative problem management) as well as the assumptions of other sub-, I have been using statistical analysis of data processing, was reached several conclusions, including:
1 - a high level of creative thinking among managers sample.
2 - The sample of managers with the ability to form a new vision of e as they have confidence in their abilities to solve problems facing them.
3 - a significant correlation between creative thinking combined factors and indicators of creative solution to the problems of management.
4 - The presence effect is significant moral to think creative in each of the following indicators to form a new vision , strengthening confidence in the capacity of direction of solving problems, and predict problems and taking action, the application of several ways to generate ideas, the adoption of clear criteria to evaluate alternatives for solutions, and generate enthusiasm to make decisions for the implementation of solutions. while the study found that there is no effect meaningful moral to think creative in each of the following indicators are the ability to diagnose problems accurately, strengthening the involvement of others in the solutions the problems, solve problems quickly and with less effort, to persuade others to accept the solution.
Comparison between the international standards of Agricultural activity No.41 and the special Iraqi rule for the same activity No.11
Volume 8, Issue 31, Pages 171-188
It must be organize the work of Agrarian foundations in a shape which secures the arrangement and preparation of the operations that connecting with the Agrarian action. Therefore, the council of the accounting standards in Iraq decided the rule No. 11 which specialized with Agrarian action.
In this research we have studied the comparison of similarities and differences between the international standard No. 41 and the rule No.11 .from the study, it appeared that the Iraq and Egypt are the only ones that put special rule in Agrarian action. While the other countries depend on the international standard No. 41 .also the study showed that there is a difference between the two in operation of measuring the assets. While from the point -view of consideration of the assets, the international standard and the Iraqi rule are the same .on other side in expression of biology assets has seen that the standard and the rule concentrated on making the expression very clear . Besides it is possible to organize the Iraqi rule as a rule to measure the right value and evaluation of biology assets.
Comparisons of same Methods of Estimation the Reliability Function for the pareto Distribution of the First Kind
Volume 8, Issue 31, Pages 189-219
An estimation of reliability function for the Pareto Distribution of the First Kind has been done in the case of existing a prior information and not existing. A simulation approach by Mont-Carlo method was used to compare between the methods of estimation Method of Maximum Likelihood Method, Method of Moments, Least Square Method, and Shrinkage Method to find the best method of estimation that function.
The researcher found that the Shrinkage Estimator is the best for estimation of reliability function comparing with the other methods of estimation through depending on the statistical measurement integral Mean Squared error (IMSE) .
Volume 8, Issue 31, Pages 220-230
Statistical inference is based generally on some estimates that are functions of the data. Bootstrapping procedure offers strategies to estimate or approximate the sampling distribution of a statistic. Logistics regression model with binary response is commonly used. This paper focus on the behavior of bootstrapping pseudo- measures in logistic regression model. Simulation and real data results also presented. We conclude and suggest to use either or , since they have convergence in there values.