Volume 12, Issue 48, Autumn 2018, Page 1-158

Market orientation is variable and mediator in the relationship between Holistic marketing and competitive advantage

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 1-30

This study is intended to determine the role of the holistic marketing with its factors, (integrate marketing, internal marketing, marketing in relation and performance marketing) which is an independent variable in achieving the competitive advantage with its dimensions (cost, quality, flexibility, delivery and technology) which depends on the market orientation with its dimensions (customer orientation, competitive orientation and coordination of tasks). It is worth relying on appropriate marketing strategies that consider the intensity of the current and potential competition in banking sector. This is supported by the encouragement of the government of establishing private and international banks. The study also aims to satisfy the needs and tastes of customers by offering distinct competitive characteristic of the bank. Thus, the study matter has been embodied in a question as to does holistic marketing in its dimensions have a role in achieving the competitive advantage its dimensions with the existence of market orientation as a mean factor? To examine the credibility of those propositions, data related to the study sample variables has been gathered according to a questionnaire, personal interviews. Field observation on banks. The study sample was conducted on a group of bank managers and bankers, and bosses. The study sample was given to (163) individuals in (16) bank in order to achieve measurement tool's data precision, finding analysis credibility. In addition the study reached findings that rejected the basic and secondary propositions and chose the alternative proposition for the existent propositions. It brought in some practical and theoretical inferences among which is the conclusion- that holistic marketing with its factors contribute to support the ability of banks to challenge the dramatic changes and thereafter stabilizing their competitive situation through achievement of the competitive advantage. There is also the existence of strong influential relationships of each of the inclusive marketing factors and the competitive advantage of the market orientation.

Tax on added value and possibility of its application in Iraq

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 31-53

The Value Add Tax has many qualifies excels out the other taxes، and the financing role considers the main role which the VAT playing as well as other roles like controling of consumption ،expenditure and enhancing growth rates. In addition VAT became the main feature of the modern taxes systems weather in developed or developing countries. The paper dealt the main reasons behind depending VAT in Iraq and the main obstacles will be faced the tax administration if depend it.At last the paper suggested a simplified model to apply VAT on Iraqi tax system taking into account the privacy of tax administration and the environment of Iraq economy in general.

Evaluation of Awkun laws in American Economy (1995 – 2014)

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 54-76

The American economist Arthur Malvin was the first to discover the empirical relationship between unemployment and economic growth in 1962, where he explained that the change in the unemployment rate is linked to the inverse relationship with the change in the real output volume of any economy. This relationship was later known in the macroeconomic models Under the name of the law of Oken.
The second study attempted to estimate the impact of the subprime mortgage crisis experienced by the US economy in 2008 on the relationship between economic growth and unemployment for the period 1995-2014 by conducting a test Structural changes or the stability test of the parameter in the Oken Law. The results indicated that the Oken Act in the United States of America was in force. Okin was a negative sign. The results also showed a structural change resulting from the subprime crisis. The regression results of the relationship between economic growth and unemployment P The study results are considered questionable authenticity (dubious value) unless the test is performed so that the stability of the time series results are acceptable statistically and can be used to predict economic policy on growth and unemployment in the United States.

The use of some nonparametric methods to model of nonparametric panel data in case there is a problem of heterogeneity to estimate of the general budget for the Arab States for the period(2002-2014)

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 77-99

In this research has addressed to the study of some estimators nonparametric to model random effects nonparametric double data (Nonparametric Panel Data Models With Random Effects) in case of a problem of heterogeneity, as there is a serious problem is in the selection of display primaries parameter, and therefore we need to find a A quick way to determine the accurate boot by eating standard intersection of legitimacy to the parameter (legitimate transit), and was eating both destined hard topical nonparametric using expansion Taylor (Local Constant Nonparametric Estimator by a Taylor expansion) (LCNE), and the estimated linear topical nonparametric using expansion Taylor ( Local Linear Nonparametric Estimator by a Taylor expansion) (LLNE), and an estimated two-stage estimation method (Nonparametric Two - Step Estimation Method in panel data) (Two - Step), by applying these methods on realistic data indicate the general budget for the Arab States for the period (2014-2002) , and the results proved destined least squares linear positional weighted to model and superiority over the estimated others preference by receiving a lower value to standards (RAMSE), (AMAPE) .
Keyword Panel data: LCNE ,LLNE , Two-step , Bandwidth , RAMSE , AMAPE Random effects.

The comparison between classical approach and Bayesian approach to estimate the simultaneous equations in case the dependent variable is binary with application

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 100-131

The research represents an attempt to estimate the simultaneous equations system in case the endogenous variable is classified binary by Using Bayesian approach and applied this method on relation between blood Pressure and psychological stress .the researcher used classical method as prior information to order to use Bayesian approach and compare between the classical method and Bayesian method and also compare among Bayesian methods by using criterion of (mse),and he deduced that the proposal method is the best from another methods.

Determining the variables affecting the scientific level of the university student at the end of academic year using the ordinal logistic regression

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 132-149

The main objective of this research is to study the variables affecting the end year results of the student of Department of Statistics, Facility of Administration and Economics, University of Basra. The researcher uses the questionnaire approach which consist of 43 questions which distributed in five areas. The research sample included 215 student who are enrolled in the bachelor’s degree for the academic year 2017-2018. After analyzing the questionnaire, the research reached to the number of conclusions. The most important variables that have significant impact as below:
- Sex variable
- Student social status
- Student desire to study in the department
- The economic level of the student's family
- Student feeling of depression during exams
- Dependence on different sources of learning to understand the lecture
- Feel embarrassed when asking others to help clarify the lecture or solve a question.

An Empirical Study on Interest Rate towards InternationalMarkets

Assist. Prof .Dr. Yousif ALI ABED AL-ASADI

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 150-158

Interest rate is one of the fiscal factor that is used to regulate the monetary policy of a country. The main objective of the study is to know about the interest rate prevailing with countries and to analyze about impact of interest rate towards international currency pairs. For this purpose the currencies of five countries were taken and they were compared with the interest rate to know about the impact. The conclusion that the interest rate changes has an impact towards the market in mid and long term basis with all the currencies taken for the study.
Keywords: Interest rate, fiscal and monetary policy